sábado, 18 de febrero de 2012


Existe mucha confusión sobre que cerámica es la más ideal para colocar en un diente, daremos unos conceptos básicos para aclarar la cuestión.
Los materiales cerámicos se clasifican de menor a mayor calidad en objetos de barro, de loza y de porcelana.
Las cerámicas se forman por el moldeado de la arcilla y  su cocida; por una vez (bizcochada) ó por dos veces (bizcochada y glaseado).
Las porcelanas o materiales cerámicos de mayor calidad, se componen de feldespato, cuarzo ó sílice y caolín ó arcilla.
El feldespato es el material  de la estética , y el cuarzo,  el material de la adhesión y por tanto de la dureza extrínseca por pegarse a otro material como metal, esmalte dentario  etc

Las cerámicas dentales tienen una composición basada en dos fases de cristalización

-una fase VÍTREA : translúcida ,estética y que se puede grabar y pegar.
-una fase cristalina: opaca, dura , que no se puede grabar y tiene peor adhesión.

Los tipos de porcelanas por ello los clasificaremos de mayor a menor en base a:

ESTÉTICA : porcelanas feldespáticas , p.feldespáticas reforzadas, p aluminosas, zirconios

DUREZA : zirconios, p.aluminosas, p feldespáticas reforzadas con leucita o litio, p. feldespáticas.

Porcelanas feldespáticas gran adhesión al contener un 80% de fase vítrea
Porcelanas feldespáticas con leucita , adhesión media al tener un 60-70% de fase vítrea
Porcelanas feldespáticas con litio, adhesion media baja al contener un 30-40% de fase vítrea
Porcelanas tipo zirconio ó alúmina, no tienen adhesión al carecer de fase vítrea



El uso de las diferentes porcelanas será en base a estos principios
-Siempre un metal cerámica será mas dura que una cerámica sin metal
-Una corona sin metal tendrá una translucidez mayor
-Los grosores del metalcerámica serán menores (1,2 mm) al ser mas resistentes que la cerámica sin metal (1,5 mm)
-Las cerámicas feldespáticas muy estéticas se adhieren muy bien y consiguen una dureza extrínseca con el diente por lo que son óptimas para carillas.
-La estética cerámica es contraria a la dureza y opacidad
-Muchas veces la cementación tipo adhesión hace aumentar la dureza por lo que el disilicato de litio cementado podría ser mas duro que la cerámica mas fuerte como el zirconio.


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